Living in a cleaner environment in India: A strategic analysis and assessment

Report on Yamuna, the poisoned river

Tata Energy Research Institute


The river Yamuna, the lifeline of Delhi, is gradually dying. Rampant industrial pollution and untreated sewage is choking the river. Despite government norms, the sewage treatment plants continue to be underutilized. The city generates 650 million gallons of sewage per day against an installed capacity of 512 million gallons. But only 350 million gallons of sewage reaches the treatment plants. A deadline of 2012 has been set to ensure no untreated sewage goes into the river. Efforts are also on to check the pollution levels from the neighbouring state of Haryana.

The seriousness of the contamination was highlighted in a study undertaken by TERI. It showed how despite government efforts industrial effluents and untreated sewage continue to choke the river. In fact, the toxins have polluted the ground water and soil. It has entered our food chain through the vegetables grown on the banks and continues to affect the people living on the banks.


Agricultural field on the banks of River Yamuna

As part of the study, water samples were taken from 13 locations, every 2 km from the Wazirabad barrage and covered a stretch of 22 km of the river Yamuna flowing through Delhi. Soil samples were collected from agricultural fields on the Yamuna flood plains at different depths – 15, 25, 60 cm a well as 250 and 500 meter away from the river, to study the exposure levels of plants at different root lengths. Similar samples were also collected from Dayalpur and Chandawali villages in the Ballabgarh district of Haryana, 25 km from the Delhi to judge the extent of contamination.

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Chemical fertilizers in our water – An analysis of nitrates in the groundwater in Punjab by Greenpeace

Source: India Water Portal

 This study by Greenpeace India Society is an initial investigation into the effects of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution in intensive agriculture areas in Punjab. The level of nitrate in drinking water was tested from groundwater artesian wells located within farms and surrounded by crops (mostly rice and wheat rotations).
Nitrate pollution in groundwater is associated with nitrogen loads in the environment. In urban areas, it is associated with sewage and in agriculture areas, with livestock sources and nitrogen fertiliser inputs. Nitrate pollution in drinking water can have serious health impact on humans, especially for babies and children. The most significant potential health effects of drinking water contaminated with nitrate are the blue-baby syndrome (methemoglobinemia) and cancer.

A chemical intensive model of agriculture was introduced in India in the 1960s as part of the Green Revolution. This model and the supporting government policies, such as the chemical fertilizer subsidy policy, provoked indiscriminate use of chemicals. This has not only led to deterioration of the environment but also degraded and contaminated the natural resources base, and is now posing a threat to human health.

Ironically, this intensive farming practice is also not living up to its promise of sustained increase in food production. As a consequence, food production is now affected by diminishing returns and falling dividends in agriculture intensive areas. Application of nitrogen fertilizers compromises future food production by degrading soil fertility, and compromises the health of the farmers and their families by polluting the drinking water they depend on. The situation is alarming as the intensive model of farming has already depleted the groundwater. This region might be suffering from widespread nitrate pollution on its diminishing sources of drinking water.

As a part of the study, groundwater was tested from artesian wells located in farms awayNitrate from other potential sources of nitrate contamination (animals, human sewage), in order to focus on the impact of fertilizer application. Farms located in three districts (Bhatinda, Ludhiana, Mukhtsar) in Punjab where fertilizer consumption is highest were sampled.

As control points, two wells that are also monitored by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) were sampled. These wells are located within the villages, with high pollution probably coming from concentration of human sewage and cattle. The comparable values from these tests and from the reported values by CGWB point to the agreement between the two methodologies.

The investigation in three districts of Punjab shows that 20 percent of all sampled wells have nitrate levels above the safety limit of 50 mg of – nitrate per litre established by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Also, this nitrate pollution is clearly linked with the usage of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers as higher the application of nitrogen (urea) in the adjoining field, the higher the nitrate pollution found in the drinking water from the same farm.

There is an urgent need to shift to an ecofriendly agricultural model, and identify agro-ecological practices that ensure future food security. It is necessary now to acknowledge the pattern of the hazards that is becoming a trend, and address them with research, political will, relevant policy and practices.

Download the report here –

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Chemical fertilizers in our water – An analysis of nitrates in the groundwater in Punjab by Greenpeace (2009) 953.75 KB