95 farm suicides in a month in Andhra Pradesh

Author(s): M Suchitra
Issue: Dec 29, 2011
State authorities hide actual number of deaths
farm distressFarmers in Jangaon administrative block have been given no relief despite crop failures and scanty rains because of the skewed criteria used by authorities (Photo: M Suchitra)

Allam Sattenna, a 35-year-old farmer from Perkalaguda, a small hamlet near Utnoor in Andhra Pradesh’s Adilabad district, owned farms spread over 0.8 hectare (ha). He took another 1.2 ha on lease by paying Rs 6,000 per acre (0.4 ha). Motivated by the high prices last year, Sattenna planted cotton  in all of the 2 ha which is rain fed.

But he could not harvest even one quintal cotton from the entire land in the first picking. His crop failed due to scanty rains and long dry spells. Worse, cotton price fell to Rs 3,500 a quintal—half of what it fetched last year because the demand for cotton in the international market was falling. Having borrowed Rs 20,000 from a local money lender last year, and with an additional debt of Rs 50,000 this year, he found no means to tide over the crisis. He ended his life in October by consuming pesticide.

He left behind a wife and a seven-year-old son. His wife, Allam Vijayamma, struggling to survive, is not even aware that a relief package exists for the families of farmers who commit suicide. “Nobody has come to me to ask about my husband’s death,” she says. Not even the village revenue officials, who should have verified and recorded the suicide as per a government order of 2005.

Despair driven by delayed and scanty rains

Andhra Pradesh is witnessing yet another spate of farm suicides. Delayed rainfall, prolonged dry spells, subsequent crop failures and unfriendly government policies have forced many farmers to kill themselves. Even as the state government maintains there were only 66 “genuine” farm suicides in the whole state between January and November in 2011, a recent report estimates as many as 95 farmers have ended their lives within a span of just one month in six districts. Cotton farmers account for maximum farm suicides.

The report, prepared by the Alliance for Sustainable Holistic Agriculture (ASHA), a nation-wide informal network of more than 400 organisations from 20 states, was based on a fact-finding survey in Adilabad, Anantapur, Karim Nagar, Medak, Mehbubnagar and Khammam districts, and on media reports on farm suicides between October and November 2011. The driest district of Anantapur tops the list with 24 suicides. Adilabad is second with 18 (see table).

Farm suicide deaths ( October 7 to November 8, 2011)
District No of Suicides
Adilabad 18
Medak 13
Karimnagar 13
Khamma 17
Mahaboobnagar 10
Ananthapur 24
Total 95
Source: Rytu Swarajya Vedika, Andhra Pradesh

“What we found is that farm suicides are no more limited to a few particular crops like cotton or to some regions, but spread across all districts and farmers growing all kinds of crops,’’ says G V Ramanjaneyalu, executive director of the Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, a non-profit based in Hyderabad. The fact-finding study of 20 families found suicides were genuine and purely due to farm-related reasons.

Andhra Pradesh is one of the five states in the country that has been witnessing a large number of farm suicides for the past one decade. The state along with Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh contribute to 66 per cent of the total farm suicides in India. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) estimates 2,525 farmers committed suicide in Andhra Pradesh in 2010.

Crisis more severe this year

  • Severe drought and sharp increase in the seed and fertilizer prices hit the farmers very hard
  • The state, which normally receives an annual average rainfall of 624.1 mm during Kharif season, got 14 per cent less rainfall this year
  • Scanty rains in June delayed sowing of rain-fed crops like cotton, groundnut and maize by up to one month
  • This delay affected crop growth while prolonged dry spells in September led to less yields
  • More than 280,000 ha of farms were not sown during kharif in 14 of the 23 districts; crops on 2.06 million ha dried up
  • The state government declared more than three fourth of its administrative blocks (mandals)—876 out of 1,128—drought-hit
When is a farm suicide a suicide

  • Five documents have to be obtained from the local police station: a first information report, a panchnama report, a post-mortem report (which has to be paid for by the family), a forensic science laboratory report and a final report
  • Other documents required are: private loan documents and/or bank loan documents as proof that the farmer was indeed indebted, the land passbook, dependents’ certificate, ration card and three years agriculture pahani (revenue records)
  • Besides all these documents, there has to be a report from the mandal-level verification committee, which consists of the mandal revenue officer, a police sub-inspector and the agriculture officer
  • Finally, a division level verification committee report is required from the revenue divisional officer, deputy superintendent of police and assistant director of agriculture

An earlier report, which was submitted in 2004 by the Commission on Farmers’ Welfare, appointed by the government of Andhra Pradesh, to then chief minister Y S Rajasekhara Reddy, had observed that agriculture in Andhra Pradesh was in an advanced state of crisis. “Drought-affected areas in Rayalaseema and Telangana bear the brunt of the burden, though, even farmers in irrigated areas have been facing problems. In addition, the burden has fallen disproportionately on small and marginal farmers, tenant farmers and rural labourers,” the report noted.

The report had also very clearly underscored the fact that “the economic strategy of the past decade at both Central and state government levels has systematically reduced the protection afforded to farmers and exposed them to market volatility and private profiteering without adequate regulation.”

“Nothing has changed since then,” says S Malla Reddy, state president of All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS). The anti-farmer policies and reforms started in 1997 by then chief minister N Chandrababu Naidu of Telugu Desam Party (TDP) are being carried forward more aggressively by the Congress chief ministers, he says.

Criteria skewed

The crisis is far more serious this year (see ‘Crisis more severe this year’). The state government declared more than three fourth of its administrative blocks (mandals)—876 out of 1,128—drought-hit.

But the present mechanism for declaring drought and providing relief—compensation of Rs 6,500 per ha for crop loss—are inadequate, say farmers and organisations working in the farm sector. At present, drought is announced only when more than 50 per cent of the cropped area dries up, yields fall short by 50 per cent and the rainfall is less than 20 mm in a month. Many mandals, like Jangaon in Warrangal district, which do not meet these criteria, are still left out even after experiencing drought, crop failure and reporting suicides.

“We’re fighting to get our mandal declared drough-hit,” says P Upendher, AIKS Jangaon mandal secretary. Hundreds of suicide deaths were reported from Warrangal and other cotton growing regions 1997 onwards.

Cropping systems have significantly changed in the past few years with large tracts being brought under commercial crops like cotton, maize, groundnut and paddy. At present, these four crops cover 90 per cent of the cropped area in the state. This year, in Andhra Pradesh, 1.9 million ha (25 per cent of the total cropped area in the state) is under cotton, mostly in rain-fed areas. “Even if the crops did not fail, the situation would have been disastrous for most of these farmers because of the price fall,” says Vasudeva Reddy, Warrangal district president of AIKS.

The latest study by ASHA notes that the cost of cultivation has increased enormously. The fertilizer costs have been increasing steadily after the nutrient based subsidy scheme was introduced, and in the past one year the DAP (diammonium phosphate) fertilizer price has doubled. Further, the costs of seeds have increased by more than 100 per cent in the past five years. In rain-fed areas, farmers spend large amounts on sinking borewells, many of which fail to yield water. The cost of each borewell is about Rs 50,000.

Genuine and not genuine suicides

The report highlights the reasons for suicides. These include: increasing costs of cultivation of all crops; non-remunerative prices (both in the markets and in government procurement system); unsustainable cropping patterns and production practices; dependence of mono-cropping of cotton and other commercial crops in rain-fed areas; lack of support systems for farmers such as institutional credit; lack of recognition of tenant farmers; and no provision for access to credit, insurance and crop compensation in rain-fed farms which constitute more than 60 per cent of the crop area.

Instead of addressing the root causes of the farm crisis, the state government is trying to suppress the actual number of suicides by classifying such deaths as “genuine” and “non-genuine”, points out the report. Last year, when NCRB put the suicide figure in the state at 2,525, the state government’s data claimed there were only 158 farm suicides. Now when the media reports more than 90 suicides in one month in six districts, the government figure for the whole state for 11 months is 66.

The gap between the real number and official figures is largely because of the documents required to establish that the death of a farmer is a genuine case of suicide purely caused by farm-related reasons. The process of assessment of a farm suicide has become complicated ever since the state government introduced a system of compensation for the families in 2005. At present, 13 documents are required to establish a farm suicide (see ‘When is a farm suicide a suicide’).

“How can the farmers’ families produce all these documents?” asks Malla Reddy. “When tenant farmers, who do not own land, commit suicide, how can their families produce land document?” There are over 250,000 tenant farmers in the state. Only a minority of them, have identity cards, which enable them to avail bank loans. Others are forced to borrow from money lenders. “And when they end their lives out of desperation, it’s not considered as genuine and their names never figure in the official list of suicide deaths.”

Instead of suppressing the suicide death figures, what the government should do is to promote a model of sustainable agriculture, and also introduce a “price compensation” system, especially for all the food crops where minimum support price (MSP) is declared. “Whenever the MSP or actual market prices do not meet the target price, which is equal to cost of cultivation plus 50 per cent, the difference should  be paid to the farmer directly. The farmer should no longer be forced to bear the burden of keeping food prices low for consumers, says Ramanjaneyulu. The fact-finding survey found that in most of the cases, the three member committee which is supposed to verify the cases and report has never visited the grieving families.

As an immediate step, the report demands the state governments should identify all farmers who have suffered crop failure in the past three years at least and provide them compensation of minimum Rs 10,000 per acre, ensuring that tenant farmers are included. Government should assess crop failure immediately and disburse compensation without any delay so that farmers are reassured that they will not get into further debt. This would prevent thousands of more suicide deaths.

956 farmers committed suicide in past three years, says Karnataka Govt


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Farmer Bore Gowda participating with IT professionals at a Candle Light Vigil to protest against farmers sucide in the State at Town Hall in Bangalore. A file photo: V. Sreenivasa Murthy
The HinduFarmer Bore Gowda participating with IT professionals at a Candle Light Vigil to protest against farmers sucide in the State at Town Hall in Bangalore. A file photo: V. Sreenivasa Murthy

As many as 956 farmers committed suicide in Karnataka in the past 44 months, the Government informed the Legislative Council on Tuesday.

“It has been reported that during the last three years (2008—09, 2009—10, 2010—11 and 2011—12 (up to 30.11.2011) 956 farmers have committed suicide”, Agriculture Minister Umesh V Katti told Veeranna Mathikatti (Congress) in reply to an unstarred question.

He said the Government has implemented several initiatives to ensure that farmers got proper prices for their produce and regular income.

These include minimum support price, as declared by Government of India and additional support by the State government, availability of credit at one per cent interest and subsidies for inputs like fertilisers, seeds, pesticides, implements and micro irrigation.

In addition, the Government has taken up new initiatives like “Bhoochetana” and “Suvarna Bhoomi Yojane” programmes, Mr. Katti added.

Besides, the Government is implementing the MNREGA scheme during the off-seasons for employment purpose, the Minister said, adding regular monitoring and testing of fertilisers and seeds is done so that they are available to farmers at MRP and of good quality.

NCRB reports Maharashtra tops farm suicides in 2010 -VJAS

Owing to rampant corruption in the Bt.Cotton farming sector a recent NCRB report has stated that Maharashtra tops the suicide number followed by four more states

A RECENT NCRB report stated that Maharashtra tops farmer suicides in 2010. It’s official that the country has seen over a quarter of a million farmer suicides between 1995 and 2010. The National Crime Records Bureau’s latest report on Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India places the number for 2010 at 15,964 and Maharashtra has reported maximum 3141 farmers suicides followed by Karnataka 2585, Andhra Pradesh at 2,525 and Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh amounting 10,614.
That brings the cumulative 16-year total from 1995 when the NCRB started recording farm suicide data to 2, 56, 913, the worst-ever recorded wave of suicides of this kind in human history. Maharashtra posts a dismal picture with over 50,000 farmers killing themselves in the country’s richest State in that period. It also remains the worst State for such deaths for a decade now. Close to two-thirds of all farm suicides have occurred in five States: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti has urged UPA convener Sonia Gandhi to change Maharashtra worst performing Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan as he is failed to protect cotton farmers of region having has ignored main demands of hike in Minimum Support Price-MSP of cotton, soybean and paddy and failed to resolve the issues of the procurement centres along with serious issue of power cut in rural Vidarbha which is more than 18 hours and due to load-shedding, 50 per cent cotton and paddy production of the region has suffered hence it was expected.

The recent announcement of Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan yesterday that hiking the of Minimum Support Price-MSP of cotton will hit textile industry and lead to closing of mills has shocked the five million cotton farmers of Maharashtra as this is against the pending demand of congress and NCP party. It was expected that congress leaders of region will take up this serious issue of agrarian crisis with Maharashtra CM but nobody pushed the main demands and all were busy in welcoming him moreover.

As Chief Minister Chavan has given hostile administration to state and administrative corruption is at peaks there is no coordination of ministers with chief minister resulting complete failure of state coalition government hence we are demanding his removal to save dying cotton farmers of Maharashtra.

In Maharashtra alone cotton is cultivated over 52 lakh hectare and the lion’s share of it is in the rain fed region of Vidarbha and Marathwada where Bt.cotton crop has been failed due to long dry spell in September severely effecting the net yield of cotton by 50 per cent resulting another Black Diwali for Bt.cotton growers who are in rip of agrarian crisis and committing suicides since June 2005.

The rain sensitive Bt.cotton seed which has increased almost triple the cultivation cost and drop down the net average cotton production per hector coupled with international market volatility and Indian Govt. export restrictions are the main reasons of prevailing distress and despair in region forcing the cotton farmers to kill themselves which is matter of national shame but complete apathy of Govt. at the centre and state are adding fuel to this on-going farmers genocide, Tiwari said.

Since august party leaders who are in power are found busy in demanding MSP for cotton like public auction from Rs 5,000 or Rs 6000 per quintal and it is countered by the opposition leaders with the demand for Rs 7,000 or Rs 8,000 per quintal for the sake of political mileage making joke of the debt ridden farmers suffering as UPA Congress-NCP government has shamelessly hiked the cotton price from Rs 3,000 to Rs 3,300 a quintal in four years overlooking sky rocketing production cost which is allowing private traders to exploit the cotton farmers hence Maharashtra farmers are demanding state procurement at minimum Rs . 6000 per quintal in order to give bailout relief more than 5 million debt trapped cotton farmers of Maharashtra as there are valid reasons when The Maharashtra State Cooperative Cotton Growers Marketing Federation chairman Dr NP Hirani has demanded Rs 6,000 per quintal while MPCC president Manikrao Thakre urged Congress president Sonia Gandhi to ensure Rs 5,000 MSP followed by social justice minister Shivajirao Moghe took two MLAs along with him to New Delhi and they urged the Party President Smt.Sonia Gnadhiji to lift ban on cotton export permanently and hike the MSP to Rs 7,000 per quintal but in ground reality cotton farmers will another Black Diwali and there are more chances of farm suicides due on going despair and distress, Tiwari added.

Looking at prevailing situation internationally wherein cotton prices are likely to soar to Rs 7,000 a quintal this year too riding on the global scarcity on account of poor crops in the US, China and Pakistan, Indian cotton farmers can hedge these prices only if central government manages to raise the minimum support price to Rs 6,000 level but The government has not responded favourably disappointing cotton farmer hence we urge for urgent intervention to save dying cotton farmers, Tiwari said.

“As the reports from all over are showing world shortage of cotton production, the Indian farmer gets advantage this time as cotton is now placed under open general license (OGL) for exports. But the OGL status should be continued. Last year, the Centre put unnecessary restrictions on exports denying farmers an opportunity to make it big. In the process they lost a market worth Rs 30,000 crore,” said Tiwari.

At the national level Maharashtra is main state which is cultivating Bt.cotton in around 52 lakh hector which is around 40% of Indian cotton cultivation moreover agrarian economy of Maharashtra is completely based on cotton production and prices hence we demand urgent intervention from government.