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Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

journal.pone.0047149 Adam S. Davis1*, Jason D. Hill2, Craig A. Chase3, Ann M. Johanns4, Matt Liebman5 1 United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America, 2 Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America, 3Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America, 4 Department of Economics, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, Osage, Iowa, United States of America, 5Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America   Abstract Top Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low […]

Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants

Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants Download Multiple variants of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter (p35s) are used to drive the expression of transgenes in genetically modified plants, for both research purposes and commercial applications. The genetic organization of the densely packed genome of this virus results in sequence overlap between p35s and viral gene VI, encoding the multifunctional p6 protein. The present paper investigates whether introduction of p35s variants by genetic transformation is likely to result in the expression of functional domains of the p6 protein and in potential impacts in […]

Comparative aspects of Cry toxin usage in insect control

Székács, A. and Darvas, B. (2012): Chapter 10. Comparative aspects of Cry toxin usage in insect control. pp 195-230. In. Ishaaya, I., Palli, S. R. & Horowitz, A. R. (Eds) Advanced Technologies for Managing Insect Pests. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. András Székács and Béla Darvas: Chapter 10. Comparative aspects of Cry toxin usage in insect control “Based on the above, Bt-based bioinsecticides and crops cannot be considered by far as equivalent technologies. Their application differs as Bt bioinsecticides allow singular applications, while Bt crops exert a continuous production of the Cry toxin. This results in higher environmental doses of the plant-expressed toxin(s) than in the case of the Bt bioinsecticide. […]

Crop and water productivity as influenced by rice cultivation methods under organic and inorganic sources of nutrient supply

Crop and water productivity as influenced by rice cultivation methods under organic and inorganic sources of nutrient supply Author by Y.V. Singh, Centre for Conservation and Utilization of Blue Green Algae (CCUBGA), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi – 110 012, India, Email: yvsingh63@yahoo.co.in; yvsingh_algal@iari.res.in Source: Paddy and Water Environment [http://www.springerlink.com/content/j483155l860236t1/] Publication Date: 28 August 2012 ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 at New Delhi, India to study the influence of organic, inorganic, and integrated sources of nutrient supply under three methods of rice cultivation on rice yield and water productivity. The experiments were laid out in FRBD with nine treatment combinations. […]

Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI): A Methodology of ‘More with Less’

Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI): A Methodology of ‘More with Less’ Author(s): N. Loganandhan, Biksham Gujja, V. Vinod Goud and U. S. Natarajan Source: SpringerLink | 16, September 2012 Sugarcane is a significant crop in contributing to the country’s economy and farmers’ livelihood development. In India, sugar is a 550 billion rupees worth industry, supporting more than 50 million farmers. There is a growing demand for sugar in India. Hence, there will be more and more stress on the sugarcane eco-system in future. But, the present scenario of cane cultivation is not sustainable enough to meet this demand as the input and labor costs are increasing and the national mean cane […]

Causes of emissions from agricultural residue burning in North-West India: evaluation of a technology policy response

Causes of emissions from agricultural residue burning in North-West India: evaluation of a technology policy response Author: Ridhima Gupta Source: South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics The burning of agricultural field residue, such as stalks and stubble, during the wheat and rice harvesting seasons in the Indo-Gangetic plains results in substantial emissions of trace gases and particles. This pollution can have adverse health and climate impacts. Paper uses a representative sample of farmers from the seven districts of Punjab to identify the determinants of emissions from open-field burning of rice residue. The study finds that the use of coarse varieties of rice as opposed to fine-grained varieties such […]

Impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – Analysis of SRI practices in 13 states of India

Impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – Analysis of SRI practices in 13 states of India Author(s): K.Palanisami, K.R.Karunakaran and Upali Amarasinghe The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – a package of practices designed to grow more rice with less water – is being widely promoted by governments and NGOs in India. In 2010-11, IWMI-Tata Program, in collaboration with local partners, undertook a study covering 2234 rice farmers in 13 major rice growing states to analyze the adoption level and impact of various SRI practices. The results confirm that SRI adopters, on the whole, displayed comparatively higher yield, higher gross margin and lower production costs. However, most ‘SRI […]

Partitioning of CH4 and CO2 production originating from rice straw, soil and root organic carbon in rice microcosms

Partitioning of CH4 and CO2 production originating from rice straw, soil and root organic carbon in rice microcosms Author(s): Quan Yuan, Judith Pump, Ralf Conrad Source: PLoS ONE | November 5, 2012 Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas CH4. Possible carbon sources for CH4 and CO2 production in rice fields are soil organic matter (SOM), root organic carbon (ROC) and rice straw (RS), but partitioning of the flux between the different carbon sources is difficult. We conducted greenhouse experiments using soil microcosms planted with rice. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=57CCBF742B732BA8A41EB07736ED366E?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0049073&representation=PDF

Asian Biotechnology Development Review: special issue on biosafety

The special issue of Asian Biotechnology and Development Review (ABDR) was formally released yesterday in a side event of the MOP. This issue has six articles and two book reviews. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review (ABDR) Vol. 14 No. 3 November 2012 ISSN: 0972-7566 Socio-economic Considerations under the Cartagena Protocol………………….………………. 1 on Biosafety: Insights for Effective Implementation Georgina Catacora-Vargas Socio-economic Aspects in Decision-Making in the Context of the …………………………..19 Biosafety Protocol: Malaysia’s Experience and Case Studies Letchumanan Ramatha and Johnny Andrew Multiple Meanings, One Objective: The Case of Biotechnology ………………………………31 Policy Convergence in Africa Julius T. Mugwagwa Socioeconomics, Biosafety, and Sustainable Development ………………………………………49 Frederic Perron-Welch Governance of Biotechnology in Africa: […]

Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. — the first sixteen years

Charles M Benbrook Correspondence: Charles M Benbrook cbenbrook@wsu.edu Author affiliations Citations Environmental Sciences Europe 2012, 24:24 doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24 Published: 28 September 2012 Abstract (provisional) Background Genetically engineered, herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant crops have been remarkable commercial successes in the United States. Few independent studies have calculated their impacts on pesticide use per hectare or overall pesticide use, or taken into account the impact of rapidly spreading glyphosate-resistant weeds. A model was developed to quantify by crop and year the impacts of six major transgenic pest-management traits on pesticide use in the U.S. over the 16-year period, 1996–2011: herbicide-resistant corn, soybeans, and cotton; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn targeting the European corn borer; Bt corn for corn rootworms; […]

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