Gilles-Eric Séralini, Robin Mesnage, Emilie Clair, Steeve Gress, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, Dominique Cellier
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Purpose: We reviewed 19 studies of mammals fed with commercialized genetically modified soybean and maize
which represent, per trait and plant, more than 80% of all environmental genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
cultivated on a large scale, after they were modified to tolerate or produce a pesticide. We have also obtained the
raw data of 90-day-long rat tests following court actions or official requests. The data obtained include biochemical
blood and urine parameters of mammals eating GMOs with numerous organ weights and histopathology findings.
Methods: We have thoroughly reviewed these tests from a statistical and a biological point of view. Some of
these tests used controversial protocols which are discussed and statistically significant results that were considered
as not being biologically meaningful by regulatory authorities, thus raising the question of their interpretations.
Results: Several convergent data appear to indicate liver and kidney problems as end points of GMO diet effects
in the above-mentioned experiments. This was confirmed by our meta-analysis of all the in vivo studies published,
which revealed that the kidneys were particularly affected, concentrating 43.5% of all disrupted parameters in
males, whereas the liver was more specifically disrupted in females (30.8% of all disrupted parameters).
Conclusions: The 90-day-long tests are insufficient to evaluate chronic toxicity, and the signs highlighted in the
kidneys and livers could be the onset of chronic diseases. However, no minimal length for the tests is yet
obligatory for any of the GMOs cultivated on a large scale, and this is socially unacceptable in terms of consumer
health protection. We are suggesting that the studies should be improved and prolonged, as well as being made
compulsory, and that the sexual hormones should be assessed too, and moreover, reproductive and
multigenerational studies ought to be conducted too